The work of this section builds upon the results of WP3 – Digital Auditing. The focus is laid on 2 specific streams within the digitalisation trends and technologies – 1) upgrade of ports and their infrastructure (terminals) in safety and security – the Blockchain technology; 2) upgrade of ports and their infrastructure in digitalisation – Internet of Things (IoT) technologies for better transport, environmental and economic performance. Yet, the application is new for the ports, and, first, measures are needed to adopt these technologies to the SB region.
We concentrate only on the following aspects: a) improvement of cargo flows; b) environmental, and c) economic efficiency. The parameters or aspects cover refer to reduction of parking-related transport in port terminals; reduction of delays; shorter travel times; multimodal transport information; managing terminal space demand; environmental compliance (dynamic traffic control; LED signal heads; shorter travel times; les congestion); cost reduction; availability and reliability; financial business concepts; client attraction (e.g. from core ports) and branding.
The Blockchain technology is crucial for joint cross-border transport solutions. This derives from the nature of Blockchain, which aims at ensuring safety and security when more “actors” or “systems” are intertwined for one purpose. A Blockchain is a distributed database, meaning that the storage devices for the database are not all connected to a common processor. It maintains a growing list of ordered records, called blocks. Each block has a timestamp and a link to a previous block. Cryptography ensures that users can only edit the parts of the Blockchain that they “own” by possessing the private keys necessary to write to the file. It also ensures that everyone’s copy of the distributed Blockchain is kept in synch.
Digitalisation challenges for small ports are not only brought by infrastructural or IT capacity problems, it is also challenge by constant technological development and globalisation of IT solutions. Such technological platforms as Blockchain and IoT, are expanding in to different aspects of our daily life. Yet, their role for transport and ports is at the grassroots level.
Block chain. As major transport companies, such as Maersk, are developing in to Blockchain to optimise cargo and document flow, it is important that small ports would utilise the opportunity to apply the technological solution in order to integrate in to the global supply chains. To apply the Blockchain skills for a small port project, the following is done:
1) Developing skills database on Blockchain and IoT by means of 5 transport forums (in line with match making, roadshows and study visits.
2) Implementing Blockchain and IoT pilots in Klaipeda Port.
3) Upgrading and transferring skills to port and maritime IT personnel with training programmes and training sessions implemented.
Development of State-of-the -Art on Blockchain Technologies in Ports and Terminals Report
Globalization and increasing demands for maritime shipping has had a dramatic influence on port and terminal around the world as ports are not only handling cargo, but information. Major ports, i.e., Port of Rotterdam and Port of Singapore, have redefined the sea freight logistics through the adoption of various emerging technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain, Cloud Computing and Internet of Things, etc. Due to various reasons, such as lack of resources, small and medium size ports (e.g. ports in the South Baltic Region) have a challenge in adopting technologies, such as those used by the larger ports. As part of a deliverable assigned by the Connect2Small PortsProject, an EU financed project, the emphasis of this report is to study and understand the components that hinder or promote the success in the application of Blockchain technology solutions for ports and terminals. The scope of this study is specifically on Blockchain and on small and medium size ports in the South Baltic Sea Region. The results, which are based on analysis on a literature review, questionnaires and field studies, highlight the advantages and obstacles for adoption of Blockchain. Finally, a SWOT analysis, value creation is identified; and best practices are identified on what are the “do’s and don’ts”.
The authors have strived to present the most accurate data and information in this report by taking ethical research considerations during the research and in the publishing